Tortoise Edible Landscaping
 

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Edible Landscaping

by Theresa C. Chirico

Healthy fresh tortoise foods are in abundance everywhere - you just need to know what to look for. This list is intended to serve as a guide to identifying natural foods, as easy and painlessly as possible. Remember to use only plants and grasses from chemical free sources. The following plants have been cross-referenced with various sources including the links at the bottom of this page.

Key:

Sp.= species  Spp= multiple species  L= Leaves   F= Flowers  FR= Fruit S= Stems  R= Root
The plants with
* beside it, are known to be some of healthier choices.
* High in Oxalic Acid * Glucosinolates/Goitrogens  *Phytic Acid
*purines * Tannins * Protein = Should be fed sparingly
---------------------
~~ Native food source for African species
~~ Native food source for Gopherus agassizi
 

SUCCULENTS:

 
Abutilon -
Aeonium
*Agave - Spp. -Leaves; Flowers- (all)
Albuca 
~~Aloe Vera-Leaves; Flowers - (all)
Amarican Aloe Spp.
*Begonias
Echeveria Spp.
Haworthia reinwardtii (very slow growing)
Hens & chickens  Sempervivum tectorum
Hens & chicks  E. cheveria Spp.
Ice plants (Mesembryanthemaceae family)
~~
Kalanchoe Spp.
Live-forever- Orphine (
Sedum purpureum)
Mimulus F Aurantica
~~Opuntias Spp.
~~Portulaca
Sedum Spp.
Spiderwort- Tradescantia pinetorum,occidentalis
Tradescantia crassula Link & Otto
Yucca (Yucca species)
Tradescantia (wandering jew)
Desert Rose (Adenium obesum)
 

TREES AND BUSHES:

Edible Shrubs - Plants for a Future
Two Rainy Side Gardeners

*
Banana leaves- Leaves; Fruit-
aurea (golden bamboo or fishpole bamboo).
Fig Tree leaves-Leaves; Fruit - Moraceae
Forsythia -
Oleaceae
Guava Tree - Leaves - Psidium guajava
Heather -
Ericaceae
~~ *Hibiscus - rosa-sinensis Leaves; Flowers-
Hibiscus syriacus
Maple -
Acer saccharum
Mimosa -
Desmanthus illinoensis
~~ *Mulberry Tree-(all)  L/ FR
~~Muhly - Sporobolus asperifolius
Black variety "
Morus nigra"
White variety "
Morus alba"
Paper mulberry - Moraceae - L/F/FR
Sage-
Sea Grape- 
Tea Tree- Lepta Spermum Scoperium  L/F
Tumbleweed - Salsola kali aka Russian Thistle
Hibiscus syriacus or Shrub Althea (Rose of Sharon)
Loquat bush - Eriobotrya japonica
Willow - Salicaccae family - Ssp.
 

CULTIVATED PLANTS:

Arctotis (African daisy)
Alyssum Sweet-  Lobularia maritima L/F
Aster- Aster sp.
Baby's Tears - Soleirolia soleirolii -  Helxine soleirolii
*Begonia - semperflorens - L/F
Birds Nests Fern - Asplenium nidus
Bottle Brush - Callistemom
Bridal Veil - Tripogandra multiflora
Bromeliads -
Bromeliaceae spp
Carnation - Dianthus caryophyllus
German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) - flowers
Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) - flowers More information
~~Chinese Lantern, Abutilon hybridum- flowers
Coleus-
Coleus ~~ *
Coreopsis- Leaves; Flowers-
Giganta/ tinctoria/atkinsoniana / calliopsidea
Cornflower (Bachelor's Buttons)-
Plagiobothrys ssp. - leaves, flowers
Corn Plant - Dracaena fragrans
Dahlia -
pinnata / rosea
~~ Day Lillies- Hemerocallis L/F/ - Not Easter or Tiger
Daisy- English Bellis perennis - flowers
*Dichondra - repens- Leaves; Flowers-
Forsythia -
Forsythia suspensa
Fuschia - Fuschia- flowers only
~~ Gazania-Leaves; Flowers- Spp
~~ Geranium-(Pelargonium species) Leaves; Flowers -
(wild and domestic)
*Grape Vine- Leaves; Fruit - vitaceae & berberidaceae
Heather- (Ericaceae sp) L/F
~~Hibiscus (leaves & Flowers)
Hollyhock- 
Alcea rosea-  Blosoms
Hosta - Leaves; Flowers-
Ice plant - Sedum spectabilis
*Impatiens - glandulifera - Leaves; Oil; flower; Seed -
Jasmine -
Jasminum officinale: J. grandifloum
Johnny-Jump-Up -
Viola tricolor
*Kalankoe Ssp.
*Kale (Brassica oleracea)
Lavender-
Lavandula angustifolia - labiatae- L/F
Lilac -
Syringa vulgaris
Lillies-Whole plant
-hemerocallis (Easter & Tiger Lilies are poisonous)
Mallow- Common
Malva sylrestris
Marigold-Leaves; Flowers- (Domestic and wild)
Mimulus -
aurantica - flowers
Monkey Plant - Ruellia makoyana - L/F
Moon Flower-  Ipomoea alba,
Ipomoea leptophylla- L/R
Mother of Pearl - Graptopetalum paraguayen
Nasturtiums -officinale Tropaeolum majus
*
Opuntia Cacti
Pansy -
Pansy Viola X - L/F
~~Petunias
Phlox-  Phlox paniculata)
Pineapple Guava (Feijoa sellowiana)
**Portacula (moss rose)-Leaves; Flowers-  Grandiflora
Portulacaria afra

*Pothos - Epipremnum Pothos aureus -Epipremnum aureum
Primrose - Primula vulgaris
*Californian Poppy - escholzia
Poppy Welsh- Meconopsis cambrica
Purslane- Portulaca oleracea
*Sedum -
Sempervivum- Leaves; Flowers-
Spider Plant -
Chlorophytum comosum - L/ F
Strawberries (all) Wild and domestic
Sweedish Ivy -
Plectranthus australis - L/F
Umbrella Plant - Darmera peltata / Petasites hyrbridus
~~ Violets (not African - English)
Whispering Bells (
Emmenanthe penduliflora)
Wisteria spp. (wisteria)  flowers
Yucca - Leaves; Flowers- (
all)
Zinnia- sp. Leaves; Flowers- -
Lavender-Leaves; Flowers-   labiatae

COMMON WEEDS:

~~** Alfalfa (Medicago sativia)     
Bindweed - Convolvulus & calystegia spp
*Birdsfoot Trefoil, Lotus corniculatus
Bittercress -
Cardamine hirsuta & flexuosa
*Black mustard- entire plant- Brassica Nigra
*Buckwheat, Polygonaceae Eriogonum fasciculatum
Bugleweed-Leaves; Flowers-
Ajuga reptans
Butterfly Bush -
Buddleja ssp.
Cat's-ears -
Hypochoeris  & hypochoeris spp
~~**Chickweed - Cerastium vulgatum / Cerastium arvense /
Common greenbrier, Catbrier-- Silax roundfolia and ssp
~~*Cotyledon orbiculata - F/L/R - Crassulaceae
**Chicory- - Flowers; Leaves; Root. -  Cichorium
Clover -
Trifolium repens Trifolium pratense
Coneflower (purple), Echinacea sp
. (Rudbeckia)
~~ Cotyledon - umbilicus-veneris - AKA Pennywort,
Creeping Bell-flower
Campanula rapunculoides
Navelwort, Cotylet
Daisy- Leaves; Flowers- Bellis perennis
Dandelion -
Taraxacum officinale -  Flowers; Leaves; Root.
*Dandelion-  other; Leaves; Root. - Agoseris - aurantiaca 
*Dayflower-Leaves; Flowers- Commelina diffusa
~~ * Dichondra repens (wonderlawn)
**Dock- Flowers; Leaves; Root - Rumex
Echinacea-Leaves; Flowers- Angustifolia
~~ Endives
Evening Primrose-Leaves; Flowers-
Oenothera biensis
Cut-leaved evening primrose,
Oenothera laciniata
*Field mustard- entire plant- Brassica rapa
Filaree -Erodium cicutarium
California Filago -
Filago californica
Hawkbits - Leontodon ssp
Hawk's Beards -
Crepis-biennis-&-capilallaris
Henbit - leaves and flowers
Lamium amplexicaule
Honeysuckle- L/F -
Lonicera interrupta / Lonicera japonica
Honesty - Condiment; Root; Seed - 
Lunaria annua
*Knotweed - Polygonum spp.
*Kudzu-L/F Root. - Puerar lobata
*Mallow -L/F Root  Malva rotundifolia /sylvestris/ neglecta/  moschata
Marigold-Leaves, Flowers-
calendula
*Miners Lettuce-Leaves- M. perfoliata
**Mustard - Brassica species  Sisymbrium officinale
Nettle- Stinging (
Urtica dioica)
~~ Nipplewort - Lapsana communis
Opuntia Cacti -(all)  L/F/FR- Opuntia - remove spines!
Persimmon -
Diospyros texanum , Diospyros virginiana
*Pink Perslane-Leaves; Flowers- Montia sibirica
*Pigweed - Amaranthus
Prickliy Lettuce- entire plant-
Lactuca serriola
Primrose -
Primula vulgaris
~~ ~~ *Plantains - Plantago major, media & lanceotata
Purple deadnettle/ red deadnettle -
Lamium purpurem
Poverty weed- Entire plant - Monolepis nuttallia /
Iva axillaris
*Purslane-
Raspberry / Blackberry- rubusideus
Red Maids -
Calandrinia ciliata
Shepard's purse - Capsella bursa-pastorsis
Capsella bursa-pastoris
*Common Sorrel- Rumex & Oxalis ssp
Salad Burnet - Sanguisorba minor
Sainfoin -
Onobrychis sativa
St. Johns Wort-Leaves; Flowers -
Hypericum 
*Stonecrops- Sedum  album
*Sow Thistle -  Sonchus oleraceus & arvensis
~~Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum)
Blessed Thistle (Cnicus benedictus)
*Mallows - Abutilon Malva sylvestris, neglecta & moschata 
Common mallow -
Malva neglecta - L/F
*Quick Weed - Galinsoga
Bush vetch - Vicia sepium
*Common vetch-Vicia sativa
Tufted vetch -
Vicia cracca
Violet (ssp) - L/F (not African )
Viola ssp
~~**Watercress- L/F- Cruiferae
***Wild Carrot- Condiment; Leaves; Root. - Daucus carota
Wild Strawberry - Fragaria Vesca
Wintercress- Entire plant-
Barbarea vulgarsis
~~Yarrow-L/ Fl Achellea millefolium

GRASSES



Common name index of Grasses & Grasslike Plants
AFRICAN GRASSES USED IN THE UNITED STATES
African Grasses

~~ Barnyardgrass - Echinochloa crus-galli
Bentgrasses
Agrostis spp.
~~Bermuda -
Cynodon dactylon
Bluegrass, annual -
Poa annua
~~Blue grama - Bouteloua gracilis
Big Bluestem - andropogon gerardi
~~Brome
~~ Buffalo grass (Stenotaphrum secondatum)
~~ Buffelgrass, Cenchrus ciliaris L.
Canarygrass, littleseed
Phalaris minor
Chufa, or Yellow Nut Grass  Cyperus esculentus
~~ Couchgrass - Agropyon repens
~~ Crabgrass- Digitaria sanguinalis
Fescue, Tall - 
Festuca arundinacea
Fescue, Blue - festuca glauca
Goosegrass-
Eleusine indica
Indian Ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides)
~~ Kikuyugrass - Pennisetum clandestinum
~~Kleingrass, Panicum coloratum L.
~~ Napiergrass, Pennisetum purpureum
Oatgrass -
*Orchard- 
Dactylis glomerata
Pampasgrass - Cortaderia selloana
**~~Pearl Millet - Pennisetum glaucum
~~ Pangolagrass, Digitaria decumbens
Peppergrass - Lepidium spp.
Quackgrass-
Agropyron repens
*Rye -
Sesame grass - Tripsacum dactyloides
St. Agustine
Sweet vernal grass - Anthoxanthum odoratum
Timothy- Phleum pratense 
Trefoil
Vetch
Wild oats -
Avena fatua
Witchgrass-
Panicum capillare L.
~~ Weeping lovegrass, Eragrostis curvula
 

FERNS:

Asperagus Fern - Asperagus setaceus plumosis
Boston Fern  -
Nephrolepsis exalta
Ostrich Fern-
Matteuccia struthiopteris  L/F
(NOT bracken ferns, (Pteridium aquilinum)
Staghorn Fern - Platycerium bifurcatum -  L/ F
Tree Fern - Dicksonia antartica

Cinnamon fern - Osumunda cinnamomea

VINES:

Grape vines - Concord Vitis spp.
*Russian vines
~~*Tradescantia (wandering jew) - Tradescantia albiflora - L/F
Honeysuckle- L/F - Lonicera interrupta / Lonicera japonica/ Lonicera periclymenum & caprifolium
Creeping Charlie- Pilea nummulariifolia
Climbing Nasturtium
Creeping jenny -
Lysimachia nummlaria
Ground ivy -
Glechoma hederacea
Sweedish Ivy -
Plectranthus australis - L/F
Wild muscadine -
Vitis rotundifolia
Kudzu -
Puerrrraria lobata

PLANT NUTRITIONAL RESOURCES ON THE WEB:
 

Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/plants.html
Search The USDA Nutrient Database For Standard Reference -Nutrient Data Laboratory:
http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/cgi-bin/nut_search.pl
Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases High-Low Chemical query - 
http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/highchem.html
Tortoise Diet Information -
http://www.tortoise.org/general/tntdiet.html
NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF FOODS COMMONLY EATEN BY CAPTIVE DESERT TORTOISES
http://www.tortoise.org/general/tntdiet.html#common
Calcium Oxalate Content of Selected Iguana Foods- Melissa Kaplan:
http://www.sonic.net/~melissk/cal_ox.html
Nutritional Analysis Of The Major Foods Of Tthe Desert Tortoise In Arizona And Utah:
http://www.tortoise.org/general/tntdiet.html#wilddiet
Nutrient analysis of replacement tortoise foods - Darrell Senneke's Hatchling Haven:
http://home.earthlink.net/~rednine/nutrient.htm
Fruit Nutrient Composition-
http://nutrition.about.com/health/nutrition/library/foodfind/blfruit.htm?iam
=dpile&terms=Forage+Nutrient+Analyses

Serrins Chiropractic Page Nutritional information on Organic vs. Nonorganic grown vegetables
http://www.serrins.com/organic.html
Oxbow Pet Products - Nutritional Articles -
http://www.oxbowhay.com/haythere.html
Nutrition Hay, Look Me Over � 1997, By Karen Briggs -
http://www.thehorse.com/current/hay0897.html
Ten Year Average Analyses of Alberta Feeds 1984 - 1994:
http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/livestock/feed/#byproduct
Wild Edible Plant Nutrition (per 100 grams)
http://www.edibleplants.com/wepnut_frames.htm
Oxalate Content of Raw Vegetables
http://www.magpage.com/~laurat/petbunny/oxveggie.html
The Fruit Pages - Sugar in fruit, calories and the burning process.
http://www.thefruitpages.com/sugar.shtml
Sugar and Acid Content in Fruit
http://www.brewery.org/brewery/library/SugAcid.html



OTHER EXCELLENT PLANT LINKS:
Weed Identification Guide http://www.ppws.vt.edu/weedindex.htm
USDA Plant Database - http://plants.usda.gov 
The GardenWeb Glossary of Botanical Terms currently contains 4400 terms relating to botany, gardening, horticulture and landscape architecture and is regularly updated.
The HortiPlex database contains plant data as well as links to information sources, images and vendors at other sites.  HortiPlex
TAMU-BWG Digital Library - Vascular Plant Images
Edible Plant ListNutrition Composition of Edible Ornamental Plants  Melissa Kaplan
Use of Ornamental Plants in Herp Enclosures and as Food - Melissa Kaplan
Wisconsin State Herbarium plant search engine CalFlora -Database of plant pictures
Plants for a future - Resource and information center for edible and other useful plants
Texas A&M University - Vascular Plant image Gallery
Rutgers Cooperative Extension - Weed Pictures!
Edible Wild Plants of the Yard - http://www.edibleplants.com/dwvplants.htm#yard
Association of Collegiate Branches of the American Society for Horticultural Science.
The Gatherer Plant Use Multiple Database Search Engine - http://www.kippewa-gardens.com/cgi-bin/Gatherer.pl     
CalFlora  -A botanical resource for California on the internet 
Gardening.com- Plant Enclyclopedia ( zone planting information)
Virtual Garden - Time-Life Plant Encyclopedia -Searchable database contains almost 3,000 species
The ISU Weed Biology Library     The New York Botanical Garden    ASHS/ACB Plant List
http://www.hort.wisc.edu/hort233/plant_list.htm
Royal Botanical Gardens Kew - Grasses Database
Photo Herbarium  - Contains pictures of many plants that are common to North America.
Interesting cactus article: http://www.sfc.ucdavis.edu/pubs/brochures/pricklypear.html
Plant image gallery - http://plants.usda.gov/plants/gallery.html
http://www.hort.wisc.edu/hort233/plant_list.htm
Virginia Tech Weed Identification Guide-  http://www.ppws.vt.edu/weedindex.htm
WEED IDENTIFICATION- http://www.ppws.vt.edu/newss/weedid.htm
Botanical.com -   http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/mgmh.html
Henriette's Herbal Homepage - http://www.ibiblio.org/herbmed/